Original Language
English
E-ISBN
978-92-9068-997-3
Number of Pages
152
Reference Number
PUB2020/037/EL

Study on Border Community Perception of Border security and Management in the Liptako-gourma Region

This study on Liptako-Gourma border communities’ perception of border security and management is an initiative of IOM with financial support from the United States Department of State. It was conducted in Burkina Faso, Mali and the Niger from March to May 2019 using a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches.
 
The field survey was conducted with communities in 20 border towns in the eastern, Sahel and northern regions of Burkina Faso, 2 towns in Mali and among defence and security forces at 3 border posts in the Niger, and reached 4,930 people including 106 defence and security forces officers.

This perception study is a reference for the implementation of the project Engaging the Border Communities in the Liptako-Gourma Region in Border Security and Management. 

  • Acknowledgements
  • List of maps, tables and figures
  • Acronyms
  • Executive summary
  • Introduction
    • PART I: COMMUNITIES’ PERCEPTIONS
      • Chapter 1. Profile of respondents
        • 1.1. Profile of respondents by gender
        • 1.2. Profile of respondents by age
        • 1.3. Profile of respondents by nationality
        • 1.4. Profile of respondents by ethnic group
        • 1.5. Profile of respondents by economic activity
      • Chapter 2. Local communities’ perceptions of border management
        • 2.1. Purposes of borders
        • 2.2. Knowledge of the location of the border
        • 2.3. Reasons for crossing the border
        • 2.4. Knowledge of the defence and security forces operating at the border
      • Chapter 3. Border security risks
        • 3.1. Knowledge of the nationalities of the people using the border crossings
        • 3.2. Knowledge of categories of people crossing the border
        • 3.3. Border crossings and criminal activities
        • 3.4. Security problems encountered at the border
        • 3.5. Knowledge of measures taken to secure the border
        • 3.6. Assessment of the measures taken to secure the border
        • 3.7. Risks that might arise from poor border security management
      • Chapter 4. Perceptions of terrorism
        • 4.1. Known terrorist activities
        • 4.2. Drivers of terrorism
        • 4.3. Communities’ exposure to terrorism
        • 4.4. Terrorist threat situation
        • 4.5. Actions to prevent terrorist threats
        • 4.6. Community actions to combat terrorism
      • Chapter 5. Communication and security
        • 5.1. Existence of intermediary stakeholders between authorities and local communities
        • 5.2. Different intermediaries between authorities and communities
        • 5.3. Means of communication with authorities and defence and security forces
        • 5.4. Warning mechanisms for border security issues
        • 5.5. Information-sharing mechanisms
        • 5.6. Benefits of good communication between authorities and local communities
        • 5.7. Risks of poor communication between authorities and local communities
      • Chapter 6. Emergency responses
        • 6.1. Hosting of displaced persons
        • 6.2. Reasons for supporting the hosting of internally displaced persons
        • 6.3. Measures proposed to the authority to deal with emergency situations
        • 6.4. Proposals for action to communities to deal with emergency situations
        • Chapter 7. Assessment of local community–government relations
        • 7.1. Relationship between the local community and public service agents
        • 7.2. Relationship between the local community and town hall agents
        • 7.3. Frequency of exchanges
    • PART II: DEFENCE AND SECURITY FORCES’ PERCEPTIONS
      • Chapter 1. Profile of respondents
        • 1.1. Profile of respondents by gender
        • 1.2. Profile of respondents by occupation
        • 1.3. Profile of respondents by number of years in post
      • Chapter 2. Working conditions at the post
        • 2.1. Entry and exit control
        • 2.2. Existence of alternative routes
        • 2.3. Officers’ training needs
        • 2.4. Post security level
      • Chapter 3. Security threats and risks
        • 3.1. Incidents with foreign nationals
        • 3.2. Lack of identity papers
        • 3.3. Security problems encountered at the border
        • 3.4. Assessment of security measures
        • 3.5. Risks related to mismanagement
      • Chapter 4. Perceptions of attacks
        • 4.1. Armed groups
        • 4.2. Terrorist activities
        • 4.3. Reasons for supporting terrorism
        • 4.4. Safety from terrorism
        • 4.5. Hosting of persons displaced by terrorist threats
        • 4.6. Terrorist threat situation
        • 4.7. Preventive means against terrorist threat
        • 4.8. Counterterrorism actions
      • Chapter 5. Knowledge of existing systems
        • 5.1. Existence of local prevention committees
        • 5.2. Results of establishing local prevention committees
      • Chapter 6. Inter-force collaboration
        • 6.1. Assessment of collaboration among defence and security forces
        • 6.2. Existence of disputes between defence and security forces
        • 6.3. Importance of collaboration
        • 6.4. Courses of action to improve collaboration between defence and security forces
      • Chapter 7. Cross-border cooperation
        • 7.1. Promotion of cross-border cooperation
        • 7.2. Existence of relationships between the defence and security forces in the Niger and the defence and security forces in Burkina Faso and Mali
        • 7.3. Development of exchanges between the defence and security forces in the Nigerand the defence and security forces in Burkina Faso and Mali
      • Chapter 8. Relationships among communities, authorities, and defence and security forces
        • 8.1. Quality of the relationship between the local communities and defence and security forcesat the border
        • 8.2. Existence of disputes
        • 8.3. Reasons behind the disputes
        • 8.4. Capacity of defence and security forces to provide security
        • 8.5. Purposes of meetings with local communities 
        • 8.6. Assessment of the officers’ relationship with the communities
        • 8.7. Collaboration between defence and security forces and stakeholders
      • Chapter 9. Communication between defence and security forces and local communities
        • 9.1. Intermediation between communities and defence and security forces for border security communication
        • 9.2. Mechanisms and means of communication between local communities and defenceand security forces
        • 9.3. Warning mechanisms
        • 9.4. Means and mechanisms for sharing of information
        • 9.5. Benefits of good communication between communities and defence and security forces
        • 9.6. Risks of poor communication between communities and defence and security forces
      • Chapter 10. Assessment of results
        • 10.1. Knowledge of the activities of IOM
        • 10.2. Establishment of local prevention committees
        • 10.3. Citizen participation
        • 10.4. Other project results
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendations
  • Annex 1. Questionnaire for border area communities
  • Annex 2. Interview guide for resource persons
  • Annex 3. Questionnaire for defence and security forces in border areas
  • Annex 4. Interview guide with the regional/district authorities in the Niger
  • Annex 5. Summary statistics of the surveys conducted in Burkina Faso
  • Annex 6. Summary statistics of the surveys conducted in Mali
  • Annex 7. Summary statistics of the surveys conducted in the Niger