The subject of this study deals with those national protection statuses that have not been harmonized through EU legislation but are based on provisions of national law. At first, discretionary grounds and humanitarian considerations, on the basis of which a national protection status can be granted, are examined with regard to actual practices and the legal situation in Austria. Moreover, possible statuses in the context of admission programmes are specifically dealt with. The study also provides an overview of the provisions, practices and rights relating to the “Residence Title for Particularly Exceptional Circumstances,” a non-EU-harmonized protection status that exists in Austria. Finally, the study takes a look at the public debates and key challenges in this area.