Original Language
Number of Pages
Reference Number
Date of upload

28 Jun 2021

Disengagement, Disassociation, Reintegration and Reconciliation: Eligibility Conditions and Practices

Also available in:

The separation of an individual from a violent extremist organization puts pressure on governments and communities to find an acceptable balance among competing interests. On one side, former associates who receive timely rehabilitation and reintegration support will be more likely to transition successfully into social, political and economic spheres of civilian life. Offering associates a viable future outside their groups can encourage defections and reduce the group’s capabilities to do harm. On the other side, States have responsibilities to victims, as well as legal obligations to hold accountable perpetrators of serious crimes, coupled with a compelling interest in protecting the society from recidivist violence. 

IOM developed the disengagement, disassociation, reintegration and reconciliation (DDRR) framework to support national governments in navigating the challenges and legal complexities that arise in violent extremist contexts. As with the long-standing commitment to disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of IOM, the Organization’s engagement with DDRR stems from a commitment to the prevention and resolution of the drivers of crisis-induced displacement, as well as its mandate to provide reintegration assistance for migrants and displaced populations.  

  • Acknowledgements
  • List of acronyms and abbreviations
  • Executive summary
  • Introduction
  • Chapter 1. Establishing eligibility criteria
    • 1.1. Criteria on criminal accountability
      • 1.1.1. International sources
      • 1.1.2. Domestic law and policy
    • 1.2. Additional criteria
      • 1.2.1. Risk of future violence
      • 1.2.2. Level of involvement
    • 1.3. Alternatives to prosecution and prison
      • 1.3.1. Legal bases for rehabilitation and reintegration
      • 1.3.2. Conditional eligibility
      • 1.3.3. Revocation
      • 1.3.4. Further guidance on alternatives
    • 1.4. Sanctioned groups
  • Chapter 2. Applying eligibility criteria
    • 2.1. Specific groups
      • 2.1.1. Women
      • 2.1.2. Children (under 18 years)
    • 2.2. Tools for assessing risk
    • 2.3. Administrative detention
  • Annex
  • References