Viet Nam faces widespread, significant risk of natural hazards, with risks expected to increase. Migration is often adopted as an adaptive strategy to respond to physical and economic impacts of environmental changes, and can increase households’ resilience to disasters and other shocks by diversifying livelihoods, increasing access to infrastructure and services, and reducing disaster risks. However, migration can also increase vulnerability, especially while households seek to re-establish livelihoods, access to resources, and social networks at their destination.
Planned relocation is the permanent, voluntary migration of people to a new location with the support of government policy or projects, which includes the reconstruction of communities’ infrastructure, services, housing, and livelihoods at their destination. Where in situ adaptation is not possible, well-planned relocation can help to increase resilience and reduce disaster risk, and can support improved quality of life in rural areas. However, planned relocation is complex, and relocation outcomes are influenced by a range of interacting factors. Planned relocation is best considered as an option only where safe in situ adaptation or other options are not feasible. Where it is found to be necessary, planned relocation should be designed and implemented with careful attention to community needs, rights and aspirations in order to achieve the desired outcomes of reduced vulnerability and increased resilience.
This training manual provides guidance for province- and local-level leaders in Viet Nam on the planning and implementation of relocation projects in the context of environmental change. The manual aims to provide a clear understanding of key concepts surrounding the complex issues of migration, environment, and climate change, as well as practical tools and guidelines for application to in the local context in Viet Nam. The manual provides a community empowerment approach to planning and implementing relocation programmes at provincial and local level.