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27 Jun 2022

Migration in Bangladesh: A Country Profile 2018

This first Migration Profile for Bangladesh is a country-specific policy tool that provides internationally comparable data and a nationally relevant monitoring framework for migratory processes. The Migration Profile is a single document that combines a large amount of the primary and secondary data related to migration in a manageable way and is aligned with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) (in particular SDG Target 10.7), the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration (Objective 1), and the IOM Migration Governance Framework (Principle 2). With a view to addressing inadequate evidence of migratory processes and their impacts in the country, IOM has assisted the Government of Bangladesh to produce this report. This Migration Profile is expected to positively contribute to the migration conversation in Bangladesh by addressing data and analysis gaps, as well as supporting national and regional initiatives to ensure migration data and information is utilized.

  • Foreword 
  • List of tables 
  • List of figures 
  • Technical Advisory Committee 
  • Abbreviations and acronyms 
  • Executive summary 
  • Migration trends 
  • Impacts of migration and remittances 
  • Part A: The socioeconomic context of migration 
    • A.1. Population dynamics 
    • A.2. Socioeconomic background 
      • A.2.1. Education 
      • A.2.2. Poverty reduction 
      • A.2.3. Economic development 
  • Part B: Migration trends and migration characteristics 
    • B.1. Key driving factors of migration and general cross-border mobility 
      • B.1.1. Migration motivation 
      • B.1.2. Migration occurrence 
    • B.2. Immigration 
      • B.2.1. Foreign-born population and immigration 
      • B.2.2. Forced immigration 
    • B.3. Emigration 
      • B.3.1. Emigration for employment 
    • B.4. Irregular migration 
    • B.5. Return migration 
    • B.6. Internal migration 
    • B.7. Internal displacement 
  • Part C: Impacts of migration 
    • C.1. Migration and macroeconomic development 
      • C.1.1. Remittance outlook in the future 
      • C.1.2. International remittance outflows 
      • C.1.3. Macro-level economic impacts of remittances 
    • C.2. Impacts at the subnational level 
      • C.2.1. Migration and social development 
      • C.2.2. Migration and community development 
      • C.2.3. Migration and individual social and cultural status 
      • C.2.4. Remittance expenditure and the national economy 
    • C.3. Migration and employment 
    • C.4. Negative micro-level impacts of migration and remittances 
  • Part D: Migration governance 
    • D.1. Migration governance in Bangladesh 
    • D.2. Labour migration system in Bangladesh 
      • D.2.1. Conceptualizing labour market institutions 
      • D.2.2. Institutional arrangements and legal and policy framework for access in Bangladesh 
      • D.2.3. Key institutions involved in labour migration governance 
      • D.2.4. Key institutions involved in remittance governance 
    • D.3. Institutional arrangements and mechanisms for facilitating access 
    • D.4. Institutional arrangements for fortifying access 
      • D.4.1. Labour welfare wings at missions/attachés 
      • D.4.2. Wage Earners’ Welfare Fund 
      • D.4.3. Smart cards 
      • D.4.4. Private protection mechanisms 
    • D.5. Mechanisms for furthering access 
  • Part E: Key findings, policy implications and recommendations 
    • E.1. Main findings on the current trends in migration, migration policies and the impacts of migration 
      • E.1.1. Findings on drivers of migration in Bangladesh 
      • E.1.2. Findings on migration numbers and data sharing systems 
      • E.1.3. Findings on the impacts of migration and remittances 
      • E.1.4. Findings on policy, legal and institutional frameworks 
    • E.2. Recommendations regarding the migration governance framework 
    • E.3. Recommendations regarding mainstreaming migration into development 
    • E.4. Recommendations concerning improvements to migration statistics and the overall evidence base 
      • E.4.1. Administrative data management systems 
      • E.4.2. Research, data collection and information availability 
  • Glossary 
  • Annexes 
    • Annex 1: Interview templates 
    • Annex 2: Data tables requested through the Technical Advisory Committee 
    • Annex 3: Functions of the Technical Advisory Committee 
  • Bibliography