Myanmar is the largest migration source in the Greater Mekong Subregion, sending an estimated 10 per cent of its 50-million population abroad, mainly to Thailand and Malaysia, as well as other destinations in Asia and beyond. Limited formal opportunities for safe migration from the country force many Myanmar nationals to use unsafe migration routes and channels, accept dangerous and irregular jobs, and live in hazardous conditions in their host locations. These combined factors make them particularly vulnerable to crises of all kinds, including disasters, instability, livelihood insecurity, violence and conflicts that threaten their lives and well-being in areas of destination.
This study looks at the main population flows currently taking place in Myanmar, the stocks of Myanmar nationals abroad and their composition, as well as highlights the main risk factors that Myanmar nationals face abroad in areas of transit and destination. Finally, it examines the institutional structures – and their mandates and capacities – that Myanmar has in place to assist them when they are affected by crises abroad.