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12 Sep 2023

Mainstreaming Migration, Environment and Climate Change into (Re)integration Initiatives in Lesotho

As already manifesting in many parts of Southern Africa, for instance, severe droughts, windstorms, land degradation, heavy rainfall and snowstorms are adversely affecting agriculture production in Lesotho. Besides climate and environmental change impact on agricultural productivity, the decline in flow of migrant remittances to rural households have contributed to acute food insecurity and increasing poverty across districts. These challenges cumulatively contribute to driving the internal migration of people from rural to urban areas in pursuit of non-farm jobs in the garment industry and other sectors. Besides these challenges, the increase in return migration to rural communities in the face of climate and environmental change, as well as general lack of economic opportunities, would undermine the potential for sustainable   reintegration. The study examines the impact of climate and environmental change on migration, return and (re)integration in Lesotho. Findings of the study formulates recommendations to facilitate the mainstreaming of climate change and related migration into (re)integration and national development programmes. This would facilitate sustainable reintegration, poverty reduction, inclusive growth and socioeconomic well-being in Lesotho.

  • Acknowledgements 
  • List of figures 
  • List of text boxes 
  • List of 
  • List of abbreviations and acronyms 
  • Glossary 
  • Executive summary 
  • 1. Introduction 
    • 1.1. Background and context of this study
      • 1.1.1. Study area in context: Country profile of Lesotho
      • 1.1.2. Historical antecedents and evolution of labour migration in Lesotho
      • 1.1.3. Climate/Environment change and migration
    • 1.2. Scope of this study
    • 1.3. Study objective and research questions
    • 1.4. Rationale of the study
  • 2. Conceptual and methodological framework
    • 2.1. Conceptual framework: Understanding the environmental change–human mobility nexus and outcomes
    • 2.2. Migration as adaptation to climate and environmental change
    • 2.3. Migration, return and (re)integration
    • 2.4. Research design and approach
      • 2.4.1. Methodological approach
      • 2.4.2. Sampling approach and study areas
      • 2.4.3. Data collection and characteristics of research participants
      • 2.4.4. Data processing and analysis
      • 2.4.5. Ethical considerations and limitations of this study
  • 3. National governance frameworks of the climate/environmental change, disaster and human mobility nexus, and (re)integration in Lesotho
    • 3.1. (Im)migration policies and legislation
    • 3.2. Migration, (re)integration and gender
    • 3.3. Climate and environmental change legislation and governance frameworks
      • 3.3.1. Climate and environmental change governance frameworks: Perspectives on gender and vulnerable groups
    • 3.4. Disaster risk reduction and management policies and governance frameworks
    • 3.5. Other relevant national policy and governance frameworks
      • 3.5.1. Lesotho’s National Vision 2020
      • 3.5.2. Poverty Reduction Strategy 2004/05–2006/07 (2006)
      • 3.5.3. Interim National Development Framework (2012)
      • 3.5.4. National Strategic Development Plan 2012/13–2016/17 (NSDP I, 2012)
      • 3.5.5. National Strategic Development Plan II 2018/19–2022/23 (NSDP, 2018)
      • 3.5.6. Gender and Development Policy (2018–2030)
  • 4. Climate/Environmental change, hazards and impacts
    • 4.1. Perceptions of climate/environmental change and hazards
    • 4.2. Climate/environmental change impact and hazards
    • 4.3. Responses to climate/environmental change and natural hazards
    • 4.4. Climate/Environmental change impact and human mobility
    • 4.5. Impact of climate/environmental change–related migration
    • 4.6. Migration, return and (re)integration in the context of climate and environmental change
  • 5. Planned relocation/resettlement, climate/environmental change and effects on local communities 
  • 6. Proposed measures to enhance climate change adaptation 
  • 7. Conclusion and recommendations 
    • 7.1. Recommendations to enhance climate adaptation and sustainable (re)integration
      • 7.1.1. Policy/Strategy framework
      • 7.1.2. Programming/Operationalization of existing strategies
      • 7.1.3. Institutional framework
      • 7.1.4. Data collection/availability for planning
    • 7.2. Areas for IOM programming.
  • Annexes
  • References