Description: 

Since 2011, Libya has been experiencing political turmoil that has reverberated across its society. Recognizing the broad impacts of these developments, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) commissioned a study on long-term migrants in Libya, focusing specifically on circumstances related to livelihoods, remittances and security.  

While existing literature extensively focuses on the conditions, challenges and risks associated with transiting through Libya, this study aims to shed more light on the circumstances of migrants who have stayed in Libya for more than a year. Research conceptualizing migration in Libya through the perspective of transit migration frequently focuses on mobility as a central topic and explores issues arising from circumstances that put transitory migrants at risk, such as dangerous desert and sea crossings, incidences of human rights violations, risk of exploitation, and limited access to public services and justice. While recognizing that some of those challenges and vulnerabilities may be applicable to both long-term migrants and short-term transit migrants, this research intends to contribute to the migration discourse on Libya by distinguishing between these two groups and specifically examines the situation of long-term migrants in terms of livelihoods, remittances, security and migration intentions to provide a better understanding of their circumstances. 

Table of contents: 
  • List of figures
  • List of tables
  • List of abbreviations
  • Key concepts
  • Executive summary
  • 1. Introduction
    • 1.1. Context
      • 1.1.1. Brief history of migration to Libya
      • 1.1.2. Conflict-affected environment
      • 1.1.3. Current status of migration in Libya
    • 1.2. Purpose and objectives
  • 2. Methodology
    • 2.1. Research approach, methods and tools
    • 2.2. Limitations
  • 3. Key findings
    • 3.1. Long-term migrant demographics
      • 3.1.1. Nationality
      • 3.1.2. Gender
      • 3.1.3. Age
      • 3.1.4. Marital status
      • 3.1.5. Education level
    • 3.2. Migration status and intentions
      • 3.2.1. Access to legal documentation
      • 3.2.2. Obtaining or renewing documents
      • 3.2.3. Difficulties faced in obtaining or renewing documents
      • 3.2.4. Drivers shaping long-term migrants’ migration intentions
    • 3.3. Livelihoods
      • 3.3.1. The context of migrant livelihoods in Libya
      • 3.3.2. Survey results
      • 3.3.3. Analysis
    • 3.4. Remittances
      • 3.4.1. Migrant remittances in the Libyan context
      • 3.4.2. Survey results
      • 3.4.3. Analysis
    • 3.5. Security
      • 3.5.1. Safety of migrants in Libya
      • 3.5.2. Survey results
      • 3.5.3. Analysis
  • 4. Conclusion
    • 4.1. Livelihoods
    • 4.2. Remittances
    • 4.3. Security
    • 4.4. Overall
  • 5. Recommendations
    • 5.1. Programmatic recommendations
    • 5.2. Research recommendations
  • Bibliography
  • Annex I: List of interviews
  • Annex II: Currency glossary
  • Annex III: Survey questionnaire