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26 Dec 2023

Compendium of good practices in enabling access to legal identity for undocumented migrants

The Compendium of Good Practices in Enabling Access to Legal Identity for Undocumented Migrants is a tool developed by IOM to guide Member States in establishing legal identity to uphold the rights of migrants and of their children, without putting them at risk.

The Compendium is developed based on field assessments in six pilot countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, the Republic of Moldova, the Niger, Peru and Thailand) conducted through a structured process, involving interviews with government officials, civil society organizations, and other stakeholders directly involved in providing legal identity to undocumented migrants. Additionally, the Compendium contains literature reviews and analysis of existing policies and legal frameworks related to legal identity for migrants.

Besides case studies, the Compendium provides users with the synthesis of good practices identified as a result of the extensive research.

The Compendium highlights key legal, political, operational and logistical challenges, good practices employed at national and local levels, as well as inclusive and gender-sensitive recommendations. It also includes a section dedicated to the non-replication and non-legitimization of marginalizing actions or practices against certain population groups, which is often considered a challenge in promoting legal identity for all.

  • Introduction
    • Objectives and goals of the Compendium
    • Targeted migrant categories
    • Information and data collection methods
    • Methodological approach
    • Analytical plan
  • Synthesis of good practices
    • Regularization pathways for migrants without proof of legal identity
    • Identity data collection and management
    • Identity verification
    • Registration of vital events of migrants without identity documents
    • Online platforms supporting identity management
    • Cooperation with civil society organizations
    • General information
    • Migration context
    • Migration management policies
    • Identity management of migrants in transit
    • Registration of arriving migrants
    • Identity management of minors
    • Determining legal identity for voluntary return
    • Processing of asylum requests
    • Civil registration
    • General information
    • Migration context
    • Migration management policies
    • Obtaining of National Migration Registration Card
    • Migrants without proof of legal identity
    • Digital Migrant ID
    • DPRNM application procedure
    • Internal Relocation, Reception and Detection Posts
    • Support by United Nations agencies
    • Migrant children without proof of legal identity
    • Operation Horizon
    • General information
    • Migration context
    • Migration management policies
    • Response refugee crisis induced by the war in Ukraine
    • Support of Ukrainian Embassy (Chisinau) in acquiring documents
    • Diia application
    • Seeking asylum without or with expired proof of legal identity
    • Temporary protection
    • State Identification Number (IDNP)
    • Civil registration of persons without proof of legal identity
    • General information
    • Migration context
    • Access to legal identity in the Niger and across the region
    • Legal identity of migrants on the territory of the Niger
    • Migrants with fabricated legal identity documents
    • Migrants in transit without documentary proof of legal identity
    • Resident migrants with expired or lost legal identity documents
    • Access to registration of vital events
  • PERU
    • General information
    • Migration context
    • Migration management policies
    • Response to the migration crisis in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
    • Procedures for entry and documentation from 2016–2019
    • Procedures for entry and documentation after 2019
    • Migrants without proof of legal identity
    • Registration of vital events for Peruvian nationals and migrants
    • General information
    • Migration context
    • Migration management policies
    • Regularization/amnesty for irregular migrants
    • Cooperation with neighbouring countries
    • Non-Thai Citizen Temporary Card
    • Certificate of identity
    • Personalization of the Non-Thai Citizen Temporary Card for irregular migrants
    • Personal identification number (13-digit code)
    • Civil registration of irregular migrants
    • Determining the legal identity of displaced persons
    • Ministry of Justice support in establishing legal identity
    • Children’s age verification procedure
    • Thai citizens stranded abroad without proof of legal identity
    • Foreign tourists stranded in Thailand without proof of legal identity
  • Annex 1
    • Questionnaire for semi-structured interviews with key informants