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12 Nov 2021

“A boy should be a fighter”: Addressing harmful masculinities driving Cattle-Related Violence

This qualitative gender and gender-based violence (GBV) research was conducted in border communities in Jur River and Tonj South affected by high-levels of protracted and seasonal cattle-related conflict. The research aim was to identify gender norms that are supportive of women’s rights and negative norms that perpetuate inter-communal conflict, GBV, and accessibility to services for GBV survivors. The purpose of the research was to generate evidence for the contextual adaption of a gender-transformative approach to peacebuilding under the South Sudan Reconciliation, Stabilization, and Resilience Trust Fund (RSRTF) Project. The research was conducted in December 2020 by IOM with its national partner, The Organisation for Child Harmony (TOCH). Based on the research findings, this report recommends that peacebuilding efforts to implement the Marial Bai agreement in the states of Western Bahr el Gazal and Warrap affected by cattle-related conflict should address gender-related drivers and norms, disaggregated by age and gender, reinforce intergenerational dialogue, promote meaningful engagement of women and girls in peacebuilding, and address barriers to access to services for survivors of conflict-related sexual violence and other forms of GBV.

  • Acknowledgements
  • Acronyms
  • Executive summary
  • 1. Introduction
    • 1.1. Background of the research
  • 2. Methodology
    • 2.1. Research scope 
    • 2.2. Purpose and objective 
    • 2.3. Research methods 
    • 2.4. Sampling and sample size 
    • 2.5. Data collection and analysis
    • 2.6. Ethical considerations and COVID-19 preventive measures
    • 2.7. Study limitations 
  • 3. Research findings
    • 3.1. Respondents’ characteristics
    • 3.2. Themes that emerged from the research
      • 3.2.1. Constructions of harmful masculinity
      • 3.2.2. Commodification of women and girls
      • 3.2.3. Intercommunal violence: Age and gender dynamics
      • 3.2.4. Peacebuilding: Age and gender dynamics
      • 3.2.5. Lack of meaningful intergenerational dialogue
      • 3.2.6. Barriers to accessing GBV response services
  • 4. Recommendations
  • 5. Conclusion
  • Annex 1: Gender and GBV-related attitudes, beliefs and practices FGD guide
  • Annex 2: Gender-based violence KII guide
  • Annex 3: Gender, GBV and peacebuilding participatory photo FGD guide
  • References