This report presents the findings of the household survey and qualitative interviews conducted in the framework of the European Union–funded Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Evidence for Policy (MECLEP) project. The study investigates to what extent migration can be seen an adaptation strategy to environmental and climate change in the country.
The survey reveals that migration is associated with positive impacts on income and employment levels and, to a lesser extent, with trade and investments. Moreover, migration often helps to improve health conditions and education, and thus has a positive impact on the well-being of migrant households. However, the survey also pointed out that migrant households have, on average, lower income levels than non-migrant households and often face challenges in relation to security, discrimination and housing – issues that are linked to the general socioeconomic development and urban planning of the country.
Hence, the report provides, among others, the following policy implications: i) mainstreaming migration as an adaptation strategy to environmental and climate change into the policy framework of the country (e.g. in climate adaptation plans, land and housing planning system, disaster risk reduction); ii) developing a support framework to ensure the well-being of migrants and enhance social cohesion between migrants and non-migrants in receiving areas; iii) developing a migration data and monitoring system to collect and disseminate information on migration flows to inform policy on urban planning, infrastructure development and resource management programmes, especially in receiving areas.