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28 Nov 2022

Air Pollution and Its Health Impacts on Internal Migrants in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan - Assessment Report

Air pollution in residential neighbourhoods on the outskirts of Bishkek, the capital city of Kyrgyzstan, is a public health emergency. Since the early 1990s, many internal migrants from various regions of the country have been moving to Bishkek in search of better living conditions. As living in the city is not affordable for them, many of these internal migrants built their houses on the outskirts, where they are still inadequately connected to the city’s public infrastructure.

This scoping study assesses the factors influencing air quality in the view of residents, including internal migrants living in residential neighbourhoods, during the heating season and throughout the year, and the impacts of these factors on their health. To effectively address the problem of air pollution, the Bishkek City Mayor’s Office and the Government of Kyrgyzstan are urged to develop a comprehensive plan of action that considers the communities of internal migrants living in residential neighbourhoods, civil society organizations, and small and medium sewing and bathhouse businesses located in these neighbourhoods. This report includes specific recommendations in relation to this issue.

  • Acknowledgements
  • List of tables and figures
  • Acronyms
  • Executive summary
  • Introduction
  • Background of the study
  • Methodology
    • Study design
    • Study setting
    • Air quality maps
    • Household survey
    • Key informant interviews
    • Focus group discussions
    • Ethics 
    • Data analysis
  • Results and findings
    • Air quality maps
    • Household survey respondents’ demographic profile
    • Migration status
    • Household socioeconomic status
    • Heating in the residential neighbourhoods
    • Survey respondents’ perceptions of factors affecting air quality 
    • Self-rated health status and health symptoms of the respondents
    • Actions to improve air quality and information channels
  • Discussion of findings
  • Recommendations 
    • Government of Kyrgyzstan 
    • Bishkek City Mayor’s Office
  • Annex. Sample distribution by residential neighbourhood
  • References