Labour Migration Governance: Gaps and Challenges in Selected Member States in ECOWAS, EAC and SADC

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27 mar 2024

Labour Migration Governance: Gaps and Challenges in Selected Member States in ECOWAS, EAC and SADC

The Joint Programme on Labour Migration Governance for Development and Integration in Africa (known as the Joint Labour Migration Programme or JLMP) is a long-term joint undertaking between the African Union Commission, IOM and the International Labour Organization, to implement the fifth key priority area of the Declaration and Plan of Action on Employment, Poverty Eradication and Inclusive Development adopted by the Assembly of Heads of States and Governments (AU/Assembly/AU/20(XXIV)/Annex 3, January 2015) in Addis Ababa.

The JLMP Priority 2018–2021, a three-year priority project, was developed in response to identified labour migration challenges, unemployment and a growing youth bulge in many African countries. The overall objective was to improve labour migration governance in Africa for safe, orderly and regular migration as committed in relevant frameworks of the African Union and the regional economic communities, as well as relevant international human rights and labour standards and other cooperation processes.

IOM commissioned the baseline assessment within the framework of the JLMP Priority implementation to strengthen the capacity of the East African Community, the Economic Community of West African States and the Southern African Development Community,  and selected Member States in the management of labour migration. The report identifies existing needs and priorities of selected Member States within the three selected regional economic communities on labour migration management. The findings outline specific recommendations towards improving labour migration governance in these regions.

  • Acknowledgements
  • List of tables and figures
  • Abbreviations and acronyms
  • Definitions of key terms
  • 1. Background of the study
    • 1.1. Rationale and objectives for the study
    • 1.2. Methodology and limitations
      • 1.2.1. Methodology
      • 1.2.2. Limitations of the study
  • 2. Labour migration governance: Instruments and structures
    • 2.1. International and continental instruments on labour migration
    • 2.2. Regional and national labour migration governance: Policies and structures
      • 2.2.1. Economic Community of West African States
      • 2.2.2. East African Community
      • 2.2.3. Southern African Development Community
    • 2.3. Gaps and challenges
      • 2.3.1. Regional
      • 2.3.2. National
    • 2.4. Recommendations
      • 2.4.1. Regional
      • 2.4.2. Member States
  • 3. Social dialogue structures on labour migration
    • 3.1. Regional social dialogue on labour migration
      • 3.1.1. Economic Community of West African States 
      • 3.1.2. East African Community 
      • 3.1.3. Southern African Development Community 
    • 3.2. National social dialogue on labour migration
      • 3.2.1. Existing social dialogue forums
      • 3.2.2. Developing social dialogue forums
    • 3.3. Gaps and challenges
      • 3.3.1. Regional level
      • 3.3.2. Member State level
    • 3.4. Recommendations
  • 4. Labour migration programmes and bilateral labour agreements
    • 4.1. Regional programmes
      • 4.1.1. Economic Community of West African States
      • 4.1.2. Southern African Development Community
    • 4.2. National programmes
      • 4.2.1. Social security
      • 4.2.2. Labour migration
      • 4.2.3. Labour migration governance
      • 4.2.4. Diaspora engagement
    • 4.3. Bilateral labour agreement
    • 4.4. Gaps and challenges
      • 4.4.1. Gaps in programming
      • 4.4.2. Gaps in bilateral labour agreements
    • 4.5. Recommendations
      • 4.5.1. Labour migration programming
      • 4.5.2. Bilateral labour agreements
  • 5. Labour migration data, monitoring and evaluation
    • 5.1. Labour migration data and labour market information systems
      • 5.1.1. Economic Community of West African States
      • 5.1.2. East African Community
      • 5.1.3. Southern African Development Community
    • 5.2. Monitoring and evaluation systems
    • 5.3. Gaps and challenges
      • 5.3.1. Regional gaps
      • 5.3.2. Member State gaps
    • 5.4. Recommendations
  • Annex 1. International Labour Organization labour standards and conventions signed and ratified
  • by Member States
  • Annex 2. List of ministries and departments involved in labour migration governance
  • by Member State
  • Annex 3. List of data collectors on labour migration by Member State
  • Bibliography