They Snatched from Me My Own Cry

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08 mar 2021

They Snatched from Me My Own Cry

The interplay of social norms and stigma in relation to human trafficking in Ethiopia. Case Study: Jimma and Arsi Zones

This report explores how social norms and stigma can be drivers of vulnerability to trafficking and barriers to the effective reintegration of survivors in Ethiopia. Focusing on Jimma and Arsi Zones in Ethiopia, it explores the ways in which social norms and expectations can heighten the risk of trafficking and exploitation of individuals in specific target communities. It also seeks to build understanding of how post-trafficking, stigma and related social norms can contribute to the maltreatment and isolation of victims in their home communities, as well as impact their access to and the quality of care they get from service providers in Ethiopia.

  • Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • Executive Summary
  • 1. Introduction
    • 1.1. Research Rationale and Focus
    • 1.2. Conceptual Framework
      • 1.2.1. Human trafficking
      • 1.2.2. Stigmatization of trafficked persons
      • 1.2.3. Social norms
      • 1.2.4. Reintegration
  • 2. Research Methodology and Tools
    • 2.1. Methodology and Research Participants
    • 2.2. Fieldwork Location Sites
    • 2.3. Ethical Considerations
    • 2.4. Limitations
  • 3. Overview of Migration and Trafficking in Persons in Ethiopia
    • 3.1. Country context
    • 3.2. Human trafficking in Ethiopia
    • 3.3. Ethiopia’s Anti-Trafficking Legislation and Policy
  • 4. Research Findings
    • 4.1. The opportunities and risks for migrants are impacted by gender norms
      • 4.1.1. How family roles and responsibilities play out along gender lines
      • 4.1.2. Modes of transit and associated risks often differ for males and females
      • 4.1.3. Employment opportunities and risks are highly gendered
    • 4.2. The desire to improve their lives outweighs the risks of trafficking for aspiring migrants
      • 4.2.1. Awareness-raising alone has limited effectiveness in preventing risky irregular migration
      • 4.2.2. Migrants are perceived as “taking the easy way out” of poverty
      • 4.2.3. Decision-making and parental influence in Jimma and Arsi
    • 4.3. Recovery and reintegration of returnees is marred by blame and shame
      • 4.3.1. Victims of trafficking and exploitation are blamed for "failed" migration
      • 4.3.2. Negative community perceptions of returnee migrants cause further distress for those that return home
      • 4.3.3. Unsafe media reporting can cause returnee migrants and survivors of trafficking further harm
      • 4.3.4. Impact of religion on reintegration experiences
    • 4.4. Victims of sexual abuse experience extreme shame and stigma
      • 4.4.1. Returnee migrants are stigmatized in communities for fear of carrying diseases
      • 4.4.2. Female victims of sexual abuse are at risk of being ostracized and outcast
      • 4.4.3. Male victims of sexual abuse experience extreme shame
      • 4.4.4. Stigma creates barriers to help-seeking among survivors
    • 4.5. Mental health problems are misunderstood, highly stigmatized and left untreated
      • 4.5.1. Beliefs that mental health problems are a result of supernatural causes
      • 4.5.2. Returnees don’t speak up about their problems due to concerns about the effects on others
      • 4.5.3. Service providers need further capacity-building
  • 5. Conclusion
  • Annexes
    • Annex I – Glossary of Key Terms
    • Annex II – Literature Review Bibliography
    • Annex III – List of Stakeholders
    • Annex IV – Consent Form
    • Annex V – Returnee Migrant Participant Summary