Original Language
Number of Pages
89 pages
Reference Number
Date of upload

08 oct 2015

Wolves in sheep's skin - A rapid assessment of Human Trafficking in Musina, Limpopo Province of South Africa

In view of an information gap on the incidence and prevalence of human trafficking in Musina, a city in the Limpopo Province of South Africa, this rapid assessment gives evidence to various forms of trafficking, and different forms of exploitation. While many migrants are at risk of being trafficked being inexperienced and not informed of immigration procedures and the dangers of travelling through nonborder post crossings, the report found that particular groups of migrants are more at risk than others. Stating that the protection system in place to support undocumented Zimbabwean adults and children in terms of shelter, food and health assistance shows a number of weaknesses and gaps that hinder adequate responses to human trafficking, the report gives a set of recommendations on how stakeholders can strengthen their interventions to more effectively combat human trafficking.

  • Executive Summary
  • Acronyms
  • Chapter 1: Introduction
    • Objectives
    • Scope of work
    • Challenges and limitations
    • Ethics
  • Chapter 2: Research Definitions and International Conventions
    • Trafficking in persons
    • Sale of Children
    • Exploitation
    • Migrant worker’s rights
    • Other international instruments
    • National legislation
  • Chapter 3: Literature Review
    • Trafficking from Zimbabwe to South Africa
    • Children on the move
    • Adults on the move
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 4: Research Findings
    • Vulnerability/risk factors
    • Macro political and socio-economic factors in Zimbabwe
    • Porous borders
    • The visa regime
    • Criminal networks and a “culture of violence and deception”
    • Gender
    • Unaccompanied child minors
    • Interpersonal problems in the home of origin
    • Lack of awareness and experience
    • Cases of human trafficking
    • Kidnapping, smuggling or trafficking?
    • Trafficking for sexual exploitation
    • Sexual exploitation
    • Sexual exploitation in transit
    • “Unaccompanied minors”
    • Sex work as a risk factor in the context of trafficking
    • Rethinking gender-based exploitation
    • Trafficking for labour exploitation
    • “Being dropped”
    • Labour exploitation
    • Trafficking for the sale of illegal substances and criminal activity
    • Trafficking of children for extortion and exploitation
    • Debt bondage
  • Chapter 5: Policy and Practice with regard to Trafficking in Persons
    • Identification of trafficking cases
    • Referral
    • Investigation and prosecution
    • Shelter and assistance
    • Return and reintegration
    • Prevention
  • Chapter 6: Health Risks Associated with Trafficking in Persons
    • Origin or pre-departure phase
    • Transit/transportation phase
    • Destination phase
    • Physical health problems
    • Sexual and reproductive health problems
    • Limited access to health care
    • Reception, integration and reintegration phases
    • Conclusion and Recommendations
    • Evidence-based policy and practice
    • Identification
    • Referral
    • Investigation and prosecution
    • Assistance
    • Return and reintegration
    • Prevention
    • Training
    • Migrants at risk
    • Coordination
  • Bibliography