Description: 

This study, by Altai Consulting for IOM’s Regional Office for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), creates a fresh and updated understanding of the dynamics of migration flows across the Mediterranean. Fieldwork was conducted between November 2014 and February 2015 across seven countries in the MENA region and Europe (Egypt, Italy, Libya, Malta, Morocco, Spain and Tunisia), and involved in-depth interviews with more than 130 migrants and key informants across all locations. The study particularly focuses on two routes: the Western Mediterranean route from Morocco to Spain, and the Central Mediterranean route from North Africa (typically Libya or Egypt) to Italy or Malta.

Table des matières: 
  • I. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
  • II. METHODOLOGY
  • III. THE WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN ROUTE
    • 1. Profiles and Push and Pull Factors
      • 1.1 Profiles
      • 1.2 Push and Pull Factors
    • 2. Main Routes of Travel and the Conditions of the Journey
      • 2.1 Routes to Morocco
      • 2.2 Routes Within Morocco
      • 2.3 Routes Across the Mediterranean
      • 2.4 The Dynamics of Migrant Smuggling
      • 2.5 Trafficking
    • 3. Main Programs and Actors
      • 3.1 Policies, Programs and Frameworks at the National Level in Spain
      • 3.2 Policies, Programs and Frameworks at the National Level in Morocco
  • IV. THE CENTRAL MEDITERRANEAN ROUTE
    • 1. Profiles and Push and Pull Factors
      • 1.1 Recent Trends
      • 1.2 Push and Pull Factors
    • 2. Main Routes of Travel and the Conditions of the Journey
      • 2.1 Routes to North Africa
      • 2.2 Routes from North Africa to Europe
      • 2.3 The Dynamics of Migrant Smuggling in 2014
      • 2.4 Kidnapping and Trafficking
    • 3. Main Programs and Actors
      • 3.1 Egypt
      • 3.2 Libya
      • 3.3 Tunisia
      • 3.4 Italy
      • 3.5 Malta
  • V. CROSS-CUTTING ISSUES AND CROSS ANALYSIS
    • 1. Syrian Refugees and Mediterranean Routes
    • 2. Decision-making Factors When Selecting Between the Routes
    • 3. Cross Analysis: Key Take-aways
    • 4. Across the Crossing Points: Towards Better Migration Management
    • 5. A Model for the Ongoing Monitoring of the Flow
  • VI. ANNEXES
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