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21 sep 2015

Migration Facts and Trends: South-Eastern Europe, Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Migration Facts and Trends: South-Eastern Europe, Eastern Europe and Central Asia presents an overview of the migratory situation in South-Eastern Europe, Eastern Europe and Central Asia (SEEECA). This region consists of 20 countries and territories covered by the IOM Regional Office in Vienna: Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Israel, Kazakhstan, Kosovo/UNSCR 1244, Kyrgyzstan, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Republic of Moldova, Montenegro, the Russian Federation, Serbia, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. The region is characterized by different economic, demographic, political and migratory contexts, cooperation and partnership frameworks and varied approaches to migration management. However, migration flows connect many of these countries and territories, particularly those in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, and many SEEECA countries face similar challenges in the migration sphere.

The document identifies 12 key trends observed in the region over the last 20 years that are expected to shape the regional migratory landscape in the years to come. The highlighted trends concern the directions, key driving forces, composition, modes and types of migration flows in the region. Carried out primarily on the basis of recently released and publicly available international data on migration, the analysis had to be substantiated, however, by anecdotal evidence from national surveys, thematic studies and expert opinions from IOM regional specialists, as existing data on migration at the regional and global levels are insufficient. 

The identified migration trends present both challenges and opportunities to the region’s governments, societies and migrants. While some relevant issues are highlighted in this publication, these challenges and their implications for policy and practice are outlined in greater detail in the 2015–2020 IOM Strategy for South-Eastern Europe, Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgements
  • About the SEEECA Regional Office
  • List of Graphs
  • Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • Methodological Note
  • Executive Summary
  • Migration in SEEECA – key facts
  • Key regional migration trends – an overview
  • Introduction
  • Regional socioeconomic and demographic context
  • Regional migration outlook
  • Regional Migration Trends
    • Trend 1: Significant intraregional migrationTrend
    • Trend 2: Increasing migrant inflow from outside SEEECA
    • Trend 3: Diversification of migration patterns, with temporary mobility on the rise
    • Trend 4: Consistently prevalent female migration
    • Trend 5: Ageing migrant population and high youth emigration
    • Trend 6: Search for employment as the main reason for migration
    • Trend 7: Growing efforts to promote engagement of diasporas in development
    • Trend 8: Robust and resilient remittance flows at low and falling costs
    • Trend 9: Abuse of legal entry and unauthorized employment as major ways into irregularity for migrant SEEECA citizens
    • Trend 10: Rising share of trafficked males and trafficking for labour exploitation
    • Trend 11: Sharp rise in forced migration
    • Trend 12: Weather- and climate-related hazards as the main trigger
      of environmental internal displacement
  • References