New Contexts of Ongoing Conflict and Violent Extremism: Disengagement, Disassociation, Reintegration and Reconciliation

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07 Sep 2021

New Contexts of Ongoing Conflict and Violent Extremism: Disengagement, Disassociation, Reintegration and Reconciliation

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Today’s conflict settings and security threats present novel challenges for States in managing, resolving and recovering from conflict while responding to the need for accountability and justice and maintaining adherence to human rights commitments and due process. In the context of armed conflict, the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) of armed group members has traditionally played an important role in solidifying peace and de-escalating conflict. However, in contexts of unresolved or ongoing conflicts and/or conflicts involving sanctioned violent extremist groups, DDR must be reframed. In particular, where sanctioned violent extremist groups are involved, United Nations Security Council resolutions 2178, 2349 and 2396 have called for prosecution, rehabilitation and reintegration, which adds an expectation of accountability beyond acts of genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity, to include crimes of terrorism. While drawing heavily on years of experience with DDR programming, the IOM disengagement, disassociation, reintegration and reconciliation (DDRR) programming is distinct in several respects. The IOM four-pillared DDRR approach is context-specific and developed and implemented alongside national governments and local partners to create viable, reliable, transparent and nationally owned legal and operational processes for supporting exit and reintegration pathways of former associates where sanctioned violent extremist groups are involved.

  • Acknowledgements
  • List of figures
  • Acronyms
  • Executive summary
  • Introduction
  • 1. Contemporary considerations and challenges in disarmament, demobilization and reintegration
    • 1.1. Theoretical background: Disarmament, demobilization and reintegration evolutions
    • 1.2. Specificities of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration in new contexts
      • 1.2.1. Absence of political will 
      • 1.2.2. Lack of a legal framework and operational parameters for disengagement, disassociation, reintegration and reconciliation
      • 1.2.3. Risk management: Security challenges in contexts of ongoing conflict and violent extremism
      • 1.2.4. Particularities of disengagement and disassociation from violent extremist organizations
      • 1.2.5. Transitional rehabilitation 
      • 1.2.6. Absence of conditions for reintegration and reconciliation
  • 2. Four-pillared approach of IOM
    • 2.1. Disarmament, demobilization and reintegration experience of IOM
    • 2.2. IOM in contemporary disarmament, demobilization and reintegration settings – Four-pillared approach 
      • 2.2.1. Pillar 1: Assessment, context analysis and national planning
      • 2.2.2. Pillar 2: “Upstream” government support
      • 2.2.3. Pillar 3: Individual case management
      • 2.2.4. Pillar 4: Community-based reintegration and reconciliation 
  • 3. Case studies
    • 3.1. Somalia
    • 3.2. Lake Chad Basin Region
  • 4. Lessons learned and elements for success
  • Annex: Definitions
  • References