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22 Sep 2015

Pilot Study: Ethiopian Migrant Labourers on Qat Farms in Rada', Yemen

Alleged cases of forced labour of smuggled migrants from Ethiopia, specifically those working on qat farms inYemen, gave rise to this pilot study. Titled Ethiopian Migrant Labourers on Qat Farms in Rada’, Yemen, this research investigates the situation of Ethiopian migrant labourers working on qat farms in Rada' Governorate, contextualizing it within the history of migration between Yemen and the Horn of Africa and of recent socioeconomic drivers. The study provides a profile of Ethiopian migrant labourers on the qat farms, their work conditions in this unregulated sector, the legislative framework and the risks associated with migrant smuggling. The research, however, found no conclusive evidence that the Ethiopian irregular migrants were trafficked for forced labour, although deception was an aspect of the smuggling process. The research offers a list of recommendations for the Government of Yemen, the international community, and national civil society organizations to take action and strengthen the response against labour exploitation, human trafficking and migrant smuggling. 

  • List of Tables
  • Acknowledgements
  • List Of Acronyms
  • Terminology
  • Executive Summary
  • I. Introduction
    • 1. Background
    • 2. Republic of Yemen’s International Treaty Obligations and Migrant Labour
  • II. The Yemen Context
    • 1. Overview of Yemen-Horn of Africa Migration Patterns
      • A. Yemen as a Country of Origin for Migrants
      • B. Yemen as a Migration Destination or Transit Country
    • 2. Getting to Yemen
      • A. The Decision to Migrate
      • B. Arriving on Yemen’s Shores
    • 3. The Role of Smugglers
    • 4. Labour Opportunities in Yemen for Migrants from Horn of Africa
    • 5. Overview of Yemen’s Agrarian History
      • A. The Rada’ Context and Qat
  • III. Migrant Labourers on Qat Farms in Rada’
    • 1. Ethiopians Working on Qat Farms in Yemen – Smuggled or Trafficked?
      • A. The Act and Means: Smuggling or Trafficking
      • B. The Purpose: Exploitation or Labour Opportunity
      • C. Protection Risks for Migrants from Horn of Africa in Yemen
    • 2. The Role of the Government of Yemen
      • A. Maritime Authority
      • B. Regulating Legal Framework of Labour
      • C. Regulating Legal Framework of Occupational Safety and Health
      • D. Frameworks to Respond to Migrant Smuggling and Human Trafficking
    • 3. Conclusion
  • IV. Recommendations for Discussion
    • 1. Recommendations
    • 2. Recommended Topics for Further Study
  • Annex 1: Research Methodology
  • Annex 2: Bibliography
  • Annex 3: Yemen’s Treaty Signatory Status
  • Annex 4: Role of Remittances in Yemen and Ethiopia
  • Annex 5: Yemen Geography and Climate Zones
  • Annex 6: The Sana’a Declaration