Description: 

Internal migration within Mongolia has a long tradition that continues up until today. More recent trends, however, are exceptional in that the share of households moving from rural to urban areas – including the capital of Ulaanbaatar – is relatively high, resulting in urbanization and the depopulation of certain rural areas of origin. Given the challenges in both urban and rural areas because of internal migration, it is no surprise that the issue has become a main policy concern for the country. Nonetheless, the last internal migration survey was conducted in 2009, and there has been a shortage of thematic or in-depth study on the topic since.

This report fills that gap by providing up-to-date evidence on internal migration in Mongolia. The analysis relies on data from a recently conducted household survey across areas of both origin and destination, covering 3,715 individuals within 1,001 households. In addition, qualitative methods – including focus group discussions and in-depth stakeholder interviews – were employed to support interpretation and add nuance to the statistical findings. Using this complementary mixed-methods approach, the findings should be of great value to policymakers working on this topic.

Table of contents: 
  • DEFINITIONS AND KEY CONCEPTS
  • EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 1.1. Justification
    • 1.2. Goals and Objectives
    • 1.3. Methodology
    • 1.4. Structure of the Report
  • 2. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS
    • 2.1. Demographic Profile
    • 2.2. Educational Attainment
    • 2.3. Employment
    • 2.4. Income and Expenditures
  • 3. LIVING CONDITIONS
    • 3.1. Housing and Land
    • 3.2. Water and Sanitation
    • 3.3. Health and Education Services
    • 3.4. Government Actions to Improve Living Conditions
  • 4. DRIVERS OF MIGRATION
    • 4.1. Migration Flows
    • 4.2. Reasons for Migrating and the Decision-Making Process
    • 4.3. Preparation and Costs Associated with Migration
  • 5. CIRCUMSTANCES RELATED TO MIGRATION
    • 5.1. Challenges in the Place of Origin
    • 5.2. Challenges at Destination
    • 5.3. Registration
    • 5.4. Subjective Opinion of Life after Migration
  • 6. MIGRATION INTENTIONS
    • 6.1. Future Migration
    • 6.2. Return Migration
  • 7. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    • 7.1. Conclusions
    • 7.2. Recommendations
  • REFERENCES