Over the past decade, Tajikistan has seen a rapid rise in cross-border seasonal migration, affecting all aspects of Tajik society, the national economy and government policy.The majority of Tajik labour migrants work irregularly in Russia and other members of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), where they are vulnerable to exploitation and suffer considerable hardship. On the other hand, substantial benefits exist: Tajik migrant workers acquire new experiences, skills and contacts, and their remittances are crucial to the survival of many households in Tajikistan. It is worth examining the nature and dynamics of such an extensive migratory flow in order to assess its impact, together with other internal trends, on the future of the country. This report is the first to comprehensively describe and analyze these trends. It covers a broad range of issues, including profiles of the different types of migrants, their motives for going abroad to work, their living conditions, the problems they face and the networks they establish, and the legislative framework for their integration in the host country, as well as the economic and social ramifications of labour migration. The report contains a number of recommendations aimed at policy makers.