Introduction to Biometrics

Original Language
English
ISBN (PDF)
978-92-9268-799-1
Number of Pages
73
Reference Number
PUB2023/073/R*
Date of upload

13 Mar 2024

Introduction to Biometrics

The “Introduction to Biometrics” manual offers a fundamental operational guide for capturing, comparing, and assessing biometric data from populations as they move, emphasizing the utilization of technology for analyzing physical characteristics such as fingerprints, facial features, and iris scans. Additionally, it addresses ongoing concerns regarding vulnerabilities, threats, and the possible discriminatory use of biometrics, while advocating for ongoing scrutiny of emerging risks or injustices that may arise. 
 
While primarily intended for IOM personnel involved in border management and legal identity programming utilizing biometric technology, it also serves as a valuable reference for Member States operating in this field.

  • ACRONYMS
  • FOREWORD
  • PART 1. INTRODUCTION TO BIOMETRICS
    • 1.1 What is biometric data
      • The purpose
      • How it works
    • 1.2 Types of biometrics
    • 1.3 Modalities
    • 1.4 Uses of biometrics
      • Supporting civil registry
      • Participation in civic activities
      • Border control
      • Humanitarian interventions and site management
      • Balancing benefits and risk
  • PART 2. SOCIETY, HISTORY AND RESPONSIBLE USE
    • 2.1 Impacts on society
    • 2.2 Ethics and origins
    • 2.3 Biometrics and bias
    • 2.4 Biometrics and children
    • 2.5 Use in humanitarian settings
  • PART 3. GOVERNANCE AND SAFEGUARDING
    • 3.1 Responsibility, proportionality, duty of care
    • 3.2 Minimum criteria
    • 3.3 Accountability
    • 3.4 Jurisdictional requirements
  • PART 4. MANAGEMENT OF BIOMETRICS
    • 4.1 Data storage
      • Storage models
    • 4.2 Maintenance of data and databases
      • Why is maintenance needed
      • Updating biometric data
      • Considering EOI principles
      • Security of biometrics
      • How are biometrics secured on travel documents
    • 4.3 Measuring biometric performance: reliability and error
    • 4.4 System bias
      • Under-representation in datasets
    • 4.5 Vulnerability of biometric systems
      • Presentation attack
      • Presentation Attack Detection (PAD)
      • Morphing
    • 4.6 Bilateral sharing of biometric data
      • Risk and concern
      • Function creep
      • Covert collection
      • Secondary information
      • Data segregation
    • 4.7 On Procurement of biometric technology
      • Recommendations on procurement for biometrics
  • PART 5. TECHNICAL IMPLEMENTATION
    • 5.1 Fingerprint
      • Representation of fingerprints
      • Capturing of fingerprints
      • Quality of fingerprints
    • 5.2 Face
      • Representation of facial biometrics
      • Capturing of facial biometrics
      • Quality of facial biometrics
    • 5.3 Iris
      • Representation of iris biometrics
      • Capture of the iris biometrics
      • Quality of iris biometrics
    • 5.4 Multi-modality
  • PART 6. IOM PROGRAMMING WITH BIOMETRIC COMPONENTS
    • 6.1 Use case 1: MIDAS
    • 6.2 Use case 2: e-RCMS
      • e-RCMS and biometrics
  • PART 7. TECHNOLOGY LOOKING AHEAD
    • 7.1 Touchless
    • 7.2 Self-Service capabilities for users
    • 7.3 Presentation attack / deep Fake / liveness
    • 7.4 Testing and dataset improvements
    • 7.5 Policies
    • 7.6 Artificial intelligence
    • 7.7 Evolving industry
  • CONCLUSION
  • TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY