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27 Dic 2016

Hazard Exposure and Vulnerability of Migrants in Thailand

Thailand is an upper middle-income country with an impressive history of economic growth that has made it the most economically advanced country within the Greater Mekong Subregion. As a consequence, it has attracted ‒ and still attracts ‒ migrants from Cambodia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Myanmar and countries further afield. Migrants currently account for an estimated   6‒8 per cent of the Thai labour force, and tend to concentrate in low-tech factories or work in construction and informal jobs in agriculture, fisheries, services and domestic work. In recent times, Thailand has faced a number of crises, such as the economic shocks in 1997 and 2008, the tsunami in the Andaman Ocean in 2004, the 2011 floods, as well as the still ongoing, decade-long period of political turmoil. This study explores how a country with double-digit economic growth through the 1980s and into the 1990s experienced a significant influx of migrants, and what implications the migrants’ presence might hold for future emergencies, especially those arising from natural hazards.

  • Introduction 
    • Methodology 
  • Migration numbers and trends 
    • Migrants from Myanmar 
    • Migrants from Lao People’s Democratic Republic and Cambodia 
    • Recent migration dynamics 
    • Migrant workers’ registration system 
    • Different categories, different conditions 
      • Migrant children 
      • Migrant workers in the fisheries sector 
    • Migrant workers: distribution and conditions 
      • Migrants in Bangkok and surrounding areas 
      • Gulf of Thailand 
      • Migrants in the South and Far South 
      • Migrants in the West 
      • Migrants in the North 
      • Migrants in the North-East
      • Migrants in the East 
  • The environment and natural hazards 
    • Floods 
    • Droughts 
    • Hazard occurrence in high immigration areas 
  • Migrants’ vulnerability to disasters and other crises 
    • Registration 
    • Freedom of movement 
    • Access to information 
    • Access to shelter and assistance 
    • Livelihoods 
    • Extortion, exploitation and trafficking 
    • Past crises: their impacts on migrants 
      • The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami 
      • Financial crises 
      • The 2011 floods 
  • Institutional structures and mandates 
    • International commitments 
      • Environment and climate change 
      • Disaster risk reduction and response 
    • National frameworks 
      • Disaster prevention and mitigation 
      • Other relevant frameworks 
    • Disaster management
      • Disaster response structure 
    • Main government agencies involved in emergency response 
    • Coordination with international actors 
    • Community-based Disaster Risk Management 
  • Conclusions and recommendations 
    • Emergency management 
    • Migration management 
    • Labour protection 
    • DRR and response 
    • Migrants’ mobility 
    • Status and documentation 
    • On the ground 
  • References