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22 Ene 2020

External Youth Migration in the Countries of Central Asia: Risk analysis and minimization of negative consequences

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Increased competition for qualified and highly qualified human resources in both developed and rapidly developing countries; the perception of educational migration as a factor in increasing the competitiveness of countries and increasing human capital are global trends in today’s migration processes. These trends apply to all Central Asian countries and largely determine the pace and nature of their development as well as the development of the entire region as a whole. In this context, a growing problem for Central Asian countries is the increasing migration of young people who want to obtain an education or work in other countries.

The purpose of the study is to provide an in-depth analysis based on qualitative and quantitative methods of youth migration in Central Asian countries as well as to develop recommendations to minimize risks and migration-related issues.

The regional field study was conducted by a group of national experts and researchers from Central Asian countries with the support of the mission of the International Organization for Migration (IOM) in Kazakhstan—the Subregional Coordination Office for Central Asia. Kazakhstan Institute for Strategic Studies under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan provided overall guidance and coordination for the project. This study was made possible as part of the IOM project “Asia Regional Migration Program” funded by the U.S. Department of State Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration (PRM USA).

  • List of figures and tables
  • Terms and abbreviations
  • From the authors
  • Introduction
  • Conceptual and methodological basis
    • The concept of “Central Asia”
    • The concept of “youth” in the countries of Central Asia
    • Eurasian migration system and Central Asian countries
    • Research methodology
  • 1 Volumes and trends of youth migration (2009–2019)
    • 1.1 Educational migration
    • 1.2 Labour migration
    • 1.3 Youth migration in the general migration flow
    • 1.4 External factors: Russian Federation migration policy
  • 2 Regulation of migration processes at the national level
    • 2.1 Kazakhstan
    • 2.2 Kyrgyzstan
    • 2.3 Tajikistan
    • 2.4 Uzbekistan
  • 3 Motives and drivers of youth migration
    • 3.1 Motives for migration
    • 3.2 Factors stimulating external migration
    • 3.3 External migration constraints
    • 3.4 Behavioural practices and migration plans
  • 4 The impact of youth migration on Central Asian countries and related risks
    • 4.1 Sociodemographic impact
    • 4.2 Economic impact
    • 4.3 Political Impact
    • 4.4 The impact of youth migration on the quality of human capital
  • 5 Conclusions and recommendations
    • 5.1 Conclusions
    • 5.2 Findings
    • 5.3 Recommendations
  • Glossary
  • Bibliography
  • Appendices