This chapter addresses two core questions: (a) How does international migration impact national frameworks of rights and duties?; (b) What policies do States develop to deal with their expatriate nationals and the entry and stay of foreign nationals? Section 32.2 reviews legislation on nationality and the various ways it has evolved in response to ground realities created by emigration and immigration. Section 32.3 describes States’ strategies to make their nationals abroad a resource for the development of their countries of origin, notably through remittances and investment. Section 32.4 is on States’ efforts to organize their national communities abroad, and connect them to various aspects of their homelands’ lives, while protecting them in the foreign countries where they reside. Section 32.5 deals with the reception of foreign nationals and focuses on irregular migration and its growing criminalization in countries along the Central Mediterranean Route. A common pattern emerges in North and West Africa, by which States recognize international migrants as citizens of the countries they come from more than full members of the ones where they actually live.