Description: 

Realizing the importance of its diaspora in economic development, the Government of Rwanda would like to identify the conditions and factors that are necessary to engage the diaspora in the development of their country of origin. The Government believes that there is a real need for a well-established structural and strategic framework both in Rwanda and abroad to mobilize, coordinate and integrate the Rwandan diaspora into national development. Thus, the Government, supported by IOM, carried out mapping exercises in four European countries, namely Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, gathering information on the number, gender composition, geographical distribution, professional skills/training and expertise of Rwandans living in the four mentioned countries. The results are published in four country-specific reports.

This comparative report gives an overview of the findings of the country reports – it presents the combined sociodemographic characteristics of the Rwandan diaspora in Europe, summarizes the aggregate results of the mapping exercises, examines convergences and divergences across the four focal countries, and offers recommendations. This and the other reports in the series aim to provide evidence-based information to the Government for policy formulation.

The comparative report was drafted in close coordination with the IOM office in Berlin, the Government of Rwanda and IOM Rwanda. It was reviewed by the Regional Thematic Specialists, the Labour Mobility and Human Development Programme of the Regional Office for East and Horn of Africa in Nairobi, the respective IOM country offices and the Government of Rwanda, both in Kigali and its embassies in the respective host countries.

Table of contents: 
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgements
  • List of figures
  • List of abbreviations
  • Executive summary
  • 1. Introduction
    • 1.1. Rwandans abroad and their contribution to development
    • 1.2. Institutional and policy frameworks for diaspora engagement
  • 2. Methodology, aim and objectives
    • 2.1. Phase 1: Desk-based review
    • 2.2. Phase 2: Quantitative survey
    • 2.3. Phase 3: Qualitative focus group discussions and interviews with key informants
    • 2.4. Phase 4: Comparative analysis
  • 3. Profile of the Rwandan diaspora in Europe
    • 3.1. History of migration movements to Europe
    • 3.2. Rwandans living in Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom
  • 4. Demographic makeup of survey participants
    • 4.1. Sociodemographic characteristics of the survey participants
    • 4.2. Educational and professional backgrounds
  • 5. Profile of Rwandan diaspora networks
    • 5.1. Varieties of diaspora networks
  • 6. Diaspora engagement in the development of the country of origin
    • 6.1. Current and planned diaspora engagement
    • 6.2. Knowledge and skills transfers
    • 6.3. Remittances
    • 6.4. Investments
    • 6.5. Awareness of government policies and programmes
    • 6.6. Current motivations, practices and barriers
  • 7. Comparative analysis
    • 7.1. Convergences and divergences across European countries
    • 7.2. Gender dynamics: Women in the diaspora
    • 7.3. Generational differences: Young people of the diaspora
  • 8. Recommendations to address obstacles to enhance engagement in national development
    • 8.1. Perceived obstacles to engagement
    • 8.2. Recommendations to address obstacles and increase incentives
    • 8.3. Recommended structured pathways for targeted interventions
    • 8.4. Specific recommendations for the Government of Rwanda
  • 9. Conclusion
  • Appendix
  • Bibliography