The Migration Profile of Ecuador (MPE) is the first of three Migration Profiles, namely of Argentina, Colombia and Ecuador, produced and published in the Latin American region. It is an update of the first version prepared by IOM Quito in July 2006. Prepared by IOM’s Ecuador Mission in coordination with IOM Geneva’s Research and Publication units and with support from the Sasakawa Endowment Fund, the MPE offers a thorough understanding of the current status of human mobility in Ecuador. The Profile analyses information available on immigration, emigration, irregular migration, labour market conditions, diasporas and remittances, refugees and asylum seekers, and policies related to these issues. In doing so, it also identifies data gaps and develops strategies to enhance data collection and sharing.
Chapter I assesses human development and poverty indicators with a view of analysing the level of development of Ecuador. The second chapter concerning migratory flows and their impacts presents some of the key features of the most recent Ecuadorian migratory wave which started in the 1990s. These include the feminization of migration, an increase in migration of young professionals and qualified technicians, the diversification of chosen destinations, increased use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) and changing access to labour markets in destination countries. The economic impact of international migration constitutes another point of analysis, with emphasis on remittances, which constitute Ecuador’s second largest source of revenue after oil. Chapter II also examines Ecuador’s role as a country that receives constant flows of immigrants and vulnerable populations seeking international protection. Chapter III outlines Ecuador’s legal and institutional framework governing migration, including recent developments such as a resolution allowing migrants to participate in electoral processes. Finally, Chapter IV presents several conclusions and recommendations.