The research clarifies the issue of smuggling of migrants, distinguishes it from trafficking in persons and irregular migration and elaborates on its link to human rights. General trends and patterns of smuggling of migrants are analysed before addressing the issue in Central Asian context. Three country sections provide a comprehensive guide through the migration context, legislation, smuggling routes, its organization, fees and profile of smuggled migrants. Each country specific chapter includes a list of recommendations from national migration authorities and local non-governmental organizations, gathered by local researchers in the course of interviews. At the end of the report there are recommendations from IOM on countering smuggling of migrants and recommendations obtained from the regional state-civic roundtable on smuggling of migrants in Almaty in March 2006 carried out under the Central Asia Partnership Group framework.